Cytokines: Interleukins
Tab. 1
Interleukins and former nomenclature.
Former names
Endogenous pyrogen (EP); lymphocyte activating factor (LAF);
hemopoietin-1 (HP-1)
Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)
As for IL-1
; osteoclast-activating factor (OAF)
Interleukin-1 receptor
antagonist (IL-1ra)
Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
T-cell growth factor-1 (TCGF-1); killer helper factor (KHF)
Interleukin-3 (IL-3)
Multiple colony stimulating factor (multi-CSF); hemopoietic cell growth
factor (HCGF)
Interleukin-4 (IL-4)
B-cell stimulating factor-I (BSF-I); T-cell growth factor-II (TCGF-II);
macrophage activation factor (MAF)
Interleukin-5 (IL-5)
T-cell replacing factor-I (TRF-I); eosinophil differentiation factor (EDF);
IgA-enhancing factor
Interleukin-6 (IL-6)
B-cell stimulating factor-2 (BSF-2); hybridoma-plastocytoma growth factor
(HPGF); hepatocyte stimulating factor (HSF)
Interleukin-7 (IL-7)
Lymphopoietin-1 (LP-1); thymocyte growth factor (THGF); pre-B-cell
growth factor (PBGF)
Interleukin-8 (IL-8)
Macrophage-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF); neutrophil
activating factor-1 (NAF-1)
Interleukin-9 (IL-9)
T-cell growth factor-III (TCGF-III); p40; mast-cell enhancing activity
Interleukin-10 (IL-10)
Cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF)
Interleukin-11 (IL-11)
Adipogenesis inhibitory factor (AGIF)
Interleukin-12 (IL-12)
Natural killer stimulatory factor (NKSF); cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation
factor (CLMF)
Interleukin-13 (IL-13)
Interleukin-14 (IL-14)
High molecular weight B-cell growth factor (HMW-BCGF)
Interleukin-15 (IL-15)
Interleukin-16 (IL-16)
Lymphocyte chemoattractant factor (LCF)
Interleukin-18 (IL-18)
Interferon gamma inducing factor
Interleukin-22 (IL-22)
IL-10-related T-cell-derived inducible factor (IL-TIF)
Interleukin-24 (IL-24)
Melanoma differentiation antigen-7 (MDA-7)
Interleukin-26 (IL-26)
IL-8 is a member of the small cytokine or chemokine superfamily. There are two main subgroups
distinguished on the basis of the positions of cysteine residues. IL-8 is a member of the CXC Ligand
(CXCL) subgroup, which also includes platelet factor 4 (PF4), ß-thromboglobulin (ß-TG), gro-
gro-ß, IP-10, and so on. The CC Ligand (CCL) subgroup includes monocyte chemoattractant
protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES, macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP-1
MIP-1ß), I-309, and so on.
and their expression may also change ac-
cording to the stage of cell development or
Overall, the regulation of cellular re-
sponses by interleukins is complex, and
probably even more so where they act as
mixtures of interleukins or with other cy-
tokines or other noncytokine mediators.
The complex interaction of interleukins
and other mediators, which is envisaged
to occur
in vivo
, has often obscured the
physiological roles of interleukins. How-
ever, do they have any major physiological
roles or do they have one or more acces-
sory or subordinate roles? The fact that
most interleukins are inducibly, rather
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