Cell Growth in Microgravity
315
Tab. 1
(
continued
)
Cell/tissue
Environment
Observation
Myoblasts
Ten days on STS-45 in space
Tissue Loss Flight Module
‘‘A’’ (TLMA)
Several permanent phenotypic alterations,
including failure to fuse into myotubes
Neonatal rat heart
cells
HARV
3-D organization, synchronous beating,
isolated heart cells reestablish structural
& molecular phenotypes of heart tissue
Rodent skeletal
muscle satellite
cells
HARV/STLV
Enhance proliferation, 3-D organization,
attenuation differentiation
MIP 101 colon
carcinoma cells
STLV
Increased proliferation, enhanced
carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
production
Human Ovarian
Tumor Cells
STLV
Capability of growth out of the body,
organization into differentiated tissue-like
constructs, enhanced oncogene
expression
Diverse human
tumor cell
HARV
Organization of tissue-speci±c epitheloid
structures, enhanced production of cell
adhesion molecules
Human prostatic
cancer cells
STLV, HARV
Enhanced differentiation, reduced
proliferation in 3-D aggregates.
Upregulation of growth factors and
basement membrane proteins in
co-cultures mimic physiological growth
conditions of prostate epithelial cells with
stromal cells, altered responses to sex
hormones and growth factors
PC12 cells
STLV, HARV
Formation of large aggregates exhibiting
neuroendocrine differentiation, altered
cellular signaling mechanisms
Normal human
kidney cells
STLV
Re-expression of tissue-speci±c morphology
(microvilli) and differentiation markers
Bovine cartilage
STLV
Macroscopic large 3-D constructs with
enhanced tissue-speci±c differentiation
(ECM proteins e.g., chondroitin sulfate,
and cytoskeletal proteins [e.g. vimentin])
Murine osteoblasts
Clinostat
Decrease of differentiated phenotype
(reduction of alkaline phosphatase and
osteocalcin)
Lymphoid tissue
HIV
HARV
Repopulation of human tonsil fragments
with exogenously added T and B
lymphocytes; capable of infection by HIV
Liver
HARV
Expansion of tissue from microscopic
fragments, angiogenesis
Source
: Unsworth, B.R., Lelkes, P.I. (1998) Growing tissues in microgravity.
Nat. Med.
4
(8): 904–907.
(Adapted with copyright permission of the authors and Nature Publishing Company, New York, NY
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