298
Carbohydrate Antigens
The worldwide epidemic spread of HIV
infections and potential bioterrorism at-
tacks have posed serious challenges to
the entire scientiFc community. High-
priority infectious agents that are cur-
rent risks to our national security in-
clude multiple microbial pathogens. These
agents are listed as category A, B, and
C pathogens by the Center for Disease
Control (CDC) of the United States. The
genome-sequencing projects have uncov-
ered the whole genome sequences of a
number of human pathogens and are
rapidly reaching completion of genome-
sequencing for others. In the postgenomic
era, it is important for us to learn to
take advantage of the enriched genome
sequence information, novel research con-
cepts, and high throughput postgenomic
technologies to beneFt carbohydrate re-
search. Professor Peng George Wang’s
group of Wayne State University has il-
lustrated one of the excellent examples
of such an effort. This group transferred
genes of the Galactose biosynthetic cycle
into an
E. coli
strain and was able to use
this strain to produce Galactoside on a
large-scale. Another example is, perhaps,
the recent development of carbohydrate
microarrays. In the year 2002, carbohy-
drate microarrays of different types were
reported in scientiFc journals. In princi-
ple, these technologies are able to display
a large repertoire of carbohydrates on a
surface and thereby allow detection of
a broad range of carbohydrate–protein
interactions in a single assay. A plat-
form of carbohydrate microarrays that
was developed by the Columbia Univer-
sity Genome Center was designed to take
advantage of the state-of-the-art technol-
ogy of cDNA micoarray and to display
different classes of carbohydrate antigens,
including polysaccharide and glycoconju-
gates of different structural conFgurations.
This technology has achieved the sensi-
tivity to recognize the proFles of human
anticarbohydrate antibodies with as little
as a few microliters of serum specimen
and
reached the
chip
capacity to
in-
clude the antigenic preparations of most
common pathogens (
20 000 microspots
per biochip). Substantial efforts must be
made, however, to extend the repertoires
of antigenic diversity and complexity of
carbohydrate microarrays and to further
improve the methods for chip production,
microarray scanning, and data process-
ing. Considerable bioinformatic efforts are
also critically needed to enable the clini-
cal application of diagnostic carbohydrate
microarrays.
Acknowledgment
Iamve
ryg
ra
te
fu
ltoD
rShaoy
iL
iu
,D
r
Jose Morales, Ms Ellen Gluzman, and
M
rB
r
i
a
nT
r
umm
e
rf
o
rt
h
e
i
re
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
t
technical assistance and many helpful
discussions in preparing this manuscript
and proofreading of this manuscript. This
work was supported by grants from the
National Institute Health and Compass
PaciFc, Ltd, to D. Wang.
See also
Bioorganic Chemistry.
Bibliography
Books and Reviews
Basten, A.,
Howard, J.G.
(1973)
Thymus
independence,
in:
Davies, A.J.S.
(Ed.)
Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology
,Vo
l
.2
,
Plenum, New York, pp. 265–300.
B
r
o
o
k
s
,
S
.
A
.
,D
w
e
k
,
M
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V
.
,S
c
h
u
m
a
c
h
e
r
,
U
.
(2002)
Functional
&
Molecular Glycobiology
,
BIOS ScientiFc Publishers, Oxford.
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