immunochemical reagents, allow for prod-
uct and contaminant identiFcation. The
advent of multidimensional nuclear mag-
netic resonance, DNA hybridization, and
±ourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance
in tandem with large advances in computer
technology signiFcantly impact the ability
to perform bioanalytical analysis. These
techniques, while typically used more dur-
ing the research and development stage,
open the door for better methodology for
product purity and safety.
Currently, biopharmaceuticals constitutes
only about 8% of the worldwide drug mar-
ket, and is expected to grow to reach
about 15% of the drug market by 2006.
However, biopharmaceuticals is only one
part of the bioprocessing market. Bio-
processing involves the collaboration of
scientists and engineers from industry,
government agencies, and universities.
Systems biology is the wave of the fu-
ture to evaluate all multivariable com-
ponents simultaneously. Thrusts for ex-
pansion include developing combined re-
actor–separator equipment, pharm plant
systems, human therapeutics, better and
more vaccines and antibiotics, commod-
ity chemicals, bioremediation, proteomics,
instrumentation and software, ‘‘biochips’’,
and gene and rejuvenative therapies. Leg-
islation addressing the use of stem cells,
gene therapy, transgenic animals, environ-
mental remediation and emissions, and
genetically engineered foods will have
a tremendous impact on the future of
the bioprocessing industry. Advances in
current bioprocess techniques will be of
essence if the cost of production is to be
reduced. The competition is international
and there are currently many company
mergers. All are trying to be at the forefront
of bioprocessing technology.
Gene Targeting; Genetic
Replication and Transcription.
Books and Reviews
±lickinger, M.C., Drew, S.W. (Eds.) (1999)
clopedia of Bioprocess Technology: Fermentation,
Biocatalysis and Bioseparation
Sons, New York.
Ladish, M.R. (2001)
Interscience, New York.
Adams, M.W.W., Kelly, R.M. (1995) Enzymes
from microorganisms in extreme environ-
Bailey, J.E. (1991) Towards a science of metabolic
Bailey, J.E. (1998) Mathematical modeling and
analysis in biochemical engineering: past
accomplishments and future opportunities,
Belfort, G., Davis, R.H., Zydney, A.J. (1994) The
behavior of suspensions and macromolecular
Enzyme Activities, in: Bergmeyer de, H.U.
Methods of Enzymatic Analysis
Verlag Chemie, Weihmeim, pp. 121–130.
Borman, S. (2000) Proteomics: taking over where
genomics leaves off,
gardh, C., Larsson, G. (1999) Scale down of
recombinant protein production: a compara-
tive study of scaling performance,