36
Bioprocess Engineering
Genomics
A set of experimental and computational tools that allow genetic information to be read
and related to the structure and function of an organism.
Hybridoma
A cell line produced by fusing a myeloma (cancer) cell with a lymphocyte; used to
produce antibodies.
Recombinant DNA
A general term for laboratory manipulation in which DNA molecules or fragments
from various sources are severed, combined enzymatically, and reinserted into host
organisms to make a protein product.
Transgenic
A term describing an animal or a plant created by introducing new DNA sequences into
the germ line via addition to the egg or the seed.
¥
Bioprocessing is the engineering component of the commercial exploitation of
biological materials, living organisms, and their activities. It is a diverse Feld
requiring the collaboration of scientists, physicians, and engineers working in
the areas of agriculture, biology, biochemistry, chemical engineering, electrical
engineering, environmental engineering,
genetics, material science, medicine,
water,
and
wastewater
treatment.
Current
biotechnology
products
include
pharmaceuticals, Fne chemicals, agricultural and food products, and biomaterials. In
addition, bioprocessing is being evaluated for the production of nano-bio products,
bioelectronics, and commodity chemicals. The use of more biologically based
products is growing; global genomic initiatives and miniaturization assure industrial
biotechnological growth. The desire to move toward more ‘‘green factories’’ that
generate less environmental waste also contributes to industrial expansion. The
current biotechnology industry is estimated to generate between $35 and $50 billion
in sales and continues to be self-sustaining in terms of research and development.
1
Introduction
The roots of bioprocess engineering are
in the food, tobacco, tea, leather, and
other ancient industries. Of particular
interest are the industries that use fer-
mentation, not only in beer brewing and
wine making but also in the production of
antibiotics, citric acid, various amino acids,
and other biomolecules. The art of yeast
and bacterial fermentation is therefore
well established. Throughout the 1990s,
cell culture technology grew signiFcantly
as growth hormones, interferons, mon-
oclonal antibodies, and artiFcial tissue
previous page 710 Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine read online next page 712 Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine read online Home Toggle text on/off