54
Aging and Sex, DNA Repair in
3
The DNA Repair (and Complementation) Theory of Sex
77
3.1
Meiosis, an Adaptation for Repairing Germ Line DNA
77
3.2
Frequency of Sexual Reproduction
78
3.3
Costs of Sex
78
3.4
Bene±ts of Sex
79
3.5
Repair of DNA Damage of the Germ Line in Nonmeiotic Cell Divisions
80
3.6
Meiotic Recombination in Eukaryotes Probably Evolved from
Recombination in Prokaryotes
81
3.7
Homologs of the Bacterial RecA Protein Have a Key Role in Eukaryotic
Meiotic Recombinational Repair
81
3.8
The Adaptive Function of Recombination Appears to Be Removal
of DNA Damage
82
3.9
Other Expectations of the DNA Repair and Complementation
Theory of Sex
83
4
Vegetative Survival Strategies
84
4.1
Survival of Vegetative Cell Populations
84
4.2
Vegetative Survival Strategy for Mitochondria (and Chloroplasts)
in the Germ Line
84
4.3
Dolly the Cloned Lamb, Cumulina the Cloned Mouse,
and Low Success of Cloned Mammals
85
5
Three Levels of Sexual Communication Reflect
(1) DNA Repair, (2) Complementation, and (3) Selection for Fitness
86
5.1
Sexual Communication in Bacteria, Primarily for DNA Repair
87
5.2
Sexual Communication in Fungi, Primarily for DNA Repair, but
Also for Limited Complementation
88
5.3
Sexual Communication in Higher Eukaryotes, Primarily
for Complementation while Repair Is an Automatic
Concomitant of Sexual Reproduction
89
5.4
‘‘Level 3’’ of Sexual Communication Is Used to Select
for Fitness among Potential Mates
91
6O
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Bibliography
92
Books and Reviews
92
Primary Literature
92
Keywords
Aging
The progressive impairments of functions experienced by many organisms throughout
their life span.
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