Autoantibodies and Autoimmunity
patients but not in SLE patients in Spain
or the United States.
Although care must be taken in their
interpretation, identifcation and charac-
terization oF genes that are associated with
autoimmunity and autoantibody produc-
tion constitute Fertile ground For the molec-
ular biologist. Elucidation oF the roles oF
the many genes that appear to contribute
to the development oF autoimmunity will
help defne the critical molecular events in
the disease process. The murine strains de-
scribed above have proven valuable model
systems For studies on a variety oF Facets
oF autoimmunity, and will play signifcant
roles in Future genetic studies. It will be
important to Focus attention not only on
the genetic loci that impart susceptibility
to autoimmunity but also on those that
may allow an individual to resist the devel-
opment oF autoimmune phenomena.
Initially used as aids in clinical diagnosis,
autoantibodies have become increasingly
useFul ‘‘reporter’’ molecules in the identif-
cation oF structure–Function relationships.
New autoantigens continue to be discov-
ered, while many described autoantigens
remain to be characterized both struc-
turally and Functionally. Autoantibodies
will fgure prominently in these characteri-
zation studies. As the molecular structures
oF the interaction between autoantigen and
autoantibody become known, it should be
possible to design peptide confgurations
capable oF perturbing the Functional activ-
ity oF numerous cellular processes.
Understanding the inﬂuence oF genes
expression is in its inFancy. However,
induced autoimmunity, and the molecular
await the complex but potentially FruitFul
identifcation and Functional analysis oF
Antibody Molecules, Ge-
netic Engineering oF.
Books and Reviews
Nuclear and Chromosomal Organization, in:
Hamkalo, B.A., Elgin, S.C.R. (Eds.)
in Cell Biology
, Vol. 35, Academic Press, New
Kono, D.H., Theoflopoulos, A.N. (2001) Genet-
ics oF murine models oF systemic lupus
erythematosus, in: Wallace, D.J., Hahn, B.H.
Dubois’ Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
6th edition, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
renewed sense oF selF,
Medzhitov, R., Janeway, C.A. Jr. (2002) Decod-
ing the patterns oF selF and nonselF by the
innate immune system,
Peter, J.B., ShoenFeld, Y. (Eds.) (1996)
, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
(1997) EFFects oF
mercury on the immune system,
, 3rd edition, Academic
Press, New York.
L.A., Weir, D.M., Hertzenberg, L.A., Black-
well, C. (Eds.)
Handbook of Experimental Im-
, 5th edition, Blackwell Scientifc
diagnostic markers For autoimmune diseases