354
Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs)
6.2
MHC Class II Processing Pathways
370
6.2.1
Endosomal Generation of Peptides
370
6.2.2
Invariant Chain and CLIP
370
6.2.3
HLA-DM
370
6.2.4
Tetraspan Network
371
7
Activation of T Cells by APCs
371
7.1
Cell Adhesion Molecules
372
7.2
Costimulatory Molecules
373
7.3
The Immunological Synapse
374
8
Macrophages
375
8.1
Evolutionary and Cellular Origin
375
8.2
Antigen Recognition Receptors
376
8.3
Macrophage Activation
378
8.4
Immunological and Nonimmunological Effector Functions
379
8.4.1
Microbial Killing
379
8.4.2
Tissue Remodeling
380
8.5
Deactivated and Alternatively Activated Macrophages
380
9
B lymphocytes
381
9.1
Antigen-induced B-Cell Activation
381
9.2
Antigen Presentation Outside the Follicular Center
382
9.2.1
B-cell Epitope versus T-cell Epitope
382
9.2.2
CD40–CD40L Engagement
384
9.3
Antigen Presentation in the Germinal Center
384
9.3.1
B Cell/Follicular DC Contacts
385
9.3.2
HLA-DO
385
10
Dendritic Cells (DCs)
386
10.1
DC Subsets
387
10.1.1
Myeloid Versus Lymphoid DCs
387
10.1.2
Human DC Subtypes
388
10.2
Antigen Uptake Mechanisms
389
10.2.1
Macropinocytosis Versus Phagocytosis
390
10.2.2
Receptors for Endocytosis
390
10.2.3
The Adhesion Receptor DC-SIGN
391
10.3
Maturation of DCs
391
10.3.1
Maturation Stimuli
391
10.3.2
The Danger Hypothesis
392
10.4
Antigen Processing and Presentation
394
10.4.1
Classical and Cross-presentation via MHC Class I
394
10.4.2
MHC Class II–restricted Antigen Presentation
394
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