324
Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis), Molecular Biology of
detection of
B. anthracis
. These methods
will facilitate the investigation of anthrax
outbreaks in the future. Although research
yields ever-increasing knowledge of the
molecular biology of
B. anthracis
,mu
ch
more work remains to be done to achieve
a full understanding of this organism’s
life
cycle, how it evolved into
such
a
deadly pathogen, and how its virulence is
controlled. As has been outlined in this re-
view,
B. anthracis
shows evidence of gene
functions that are encoded by unknown
genes and of genes that encode proteins
of unknown function. Further research on
B. anthracis
, which should be facilitated
by the completed genome sequence, will
hopefully make it possible to connect addi-
tional genes with their functions and result
in a deeper understanding of the life cycle
and pathogenesis of
B. anthracis
.
See also
Autoantibodies and Au-
toimmunity; Genetic Engineering
of Vaccines; Genetics, Molecular
Basis of; Infectious Disease Testing
by LCR
Bibliography
Books and Reviews
Baillie, L., Read, T.D. (2001) Bacillus anthracis,
a bug with attitude!
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.
4
,
78–81.
Mourez, M., Lacy, D.B., Cunningham, K., Leg-
mann, R.,
Sellman, B.R.,
Mogridge, J.,
Col-
lier, R.J. (2002) 2001: a year of major advances
in anthrax toxin research,
Trends Microbiol.
10
,
287–293.
Thorne, C.B. (1993)
Bacillus anthracis
,
Bacillus
subtilis
and
Other
Gram-positive
Bacteria:
Biochemistry, Physiology, and Molecular Gene-
tics
,
American
Society
of
Microbiology,
Washington, DC, pp. 113–124.
Bioterrorism-related anthrax,
Emerg. Infect. Dis.
8
(10), 1013–1182 (2002). This is a whole
issue
devoted
to
the
anthrax
outbreak
of
2001.
Primary Literature
Anderson, G.L.,
Simchock J.M.,
Wilson, K.H.
(1996) Identi±cation of a region of genetic
variability among
Bacillus anthracis
strains and
related species,
J. Bacteriol.
178
, 377–384.
Ash, C.,
Collins, M.D.
(1992)
Comparative
analysis of 23S ribosomal RNA gene sequences
of
Bacillus anthracis
and emetic
Bacillus cereus
determined by PCR-direct sequencing,
FEMS
Microbiol. Lett.
94
, 75–80.
Ash, C.,
Farrow, J.A.E.,
Dorsch, M.,
Stacke-
brandt, E., Collins, M.D. (1991) Comparative
analysis of
Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus
,
and related species on the basis of reverse
transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA,
Int. J.
Syst. Bacteriol.
41
, 343–346.
Battisti, L.,
Green, B.D.,
Thorne, C.B.
(1985)
Mating system for transfer of plasmids among
Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus
,and
Bacillus
thuringiensis
,
J. Bacteriol.
162
, 543–550.
Beauregard, K.E.,
Collier, R.J.,
Swanson, J.A.
(2000) Proteolytic activation of receptor-bound
anthrax protective antigen on macrophages
promotes its internalization,
Cell. Microbiol.
2
,
251–258.
B
r
a
d
l
e
y
,K
.
A
.
,M
o
g
r
i
d
g
e
,
J
.
,M
o
u
r
e
z
,M
.
,C
o
l
-
lier, R.J., Young, J.A. (2001) Identi±cation of
the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin,
Nature
414
, 225–229.
Brumlik, M.J.,
Szymajda, U.,
Zakowska, D.,
L
i
a
n
g
,X
.
,R
e
d
k
a
r
,R
.
J
.
,P
a
t
r
a
,G
.
,D
e
l
Vecchio, V.G.
(2001)
Use
of
long-range
repetitive
element
polymorphism-PCR
to
differentiate
Bacillus anthracis
strains,
Appl.
Environ. Microbiol.
67
, 3021–3028.
Carter, K.C. (1988) The Koch-Pasteur dispute on
establishing the cause of anthrax,
Bull. Hist.
Med.
62
, 42–57.
Christopher, G.W., Cieslak, T.J., Pavlin, J.A.,
Eitzen,
E.M.
(1997)
Biological
warfare.
A
historical
perspective,
JAMA
278
,
412–417.
Dai, Z.,
Koehler, T.M.
(1997)
Regulation
of
anthrax toxin activator gene (
atxA
) expression
in
Bacillus
anthracis
:
temperature,
not
CO
2
/bicarbonate,
affects
AtxA
synthesis,
Infect. Immun.
65
, 2576–2582.
previous page 324 Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine read online next page 326 Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine read online Home Toggle text on/off