Alternatively Spliced Genes
145
Tab. 3
(
continued
)
Protein name
Motifs
RNA-binding sites
TIA-1
3 RRMs
U-rich
p72
DExD, Helicase, RGG
YB1
Cold box
A/C-rich ESE
B. Splicing repressors
hnRNP A1
2 RRMs, Gly-rich
ESSs or ISSs
hnRNP I/PTB
4 RRMs
U/C-rich
nPTB
4 RRMs
U/C-rich
SmPTB
4 RRMs
U/C-rich
Elav (D.m.)
3 RRMs
Sxl (D.m.)
3 RRMs
Mec8 (C.e.)
2 RRMs
Fox1 (C.e.)
RRM
PSI (D.m.)
4 KH
ISS
QKI-5
KH
ISS
SRp30c
2 RRMs, RS
SRrp35
1 RRM, RS
SRp38
1 RRM, RS
SRrp40
1 RRM, RS
SPF45
1 RRM, Gly-rich
RSF1 (D.m.)
1 RRM, GRS
SWAP (D.m.)
RS
C. Bifunctional splicing regulators
p54/SFRS11
1RRM, RS
SRrP86
1RRM, RS
p32
HnRNP H
3RRMs, Gly
ESE or ISE
ESS
Napor1
3RRMs
Note
: A. Splicing activators. B. Splicing repressors. C. Bifunctional
splicing regulators.
STAR: signal transduction and activation of RNA.
For other abbreviations, see footnotes for Table 1.
is determined by combinatorial effects of
multisite interactions among pre-mRNA,
essential spliceosomal components, and
regulatory factors.
Genetic
and
biochemical
studies
in
Drosophila
genes have tremendously ad-
vanced our understanding of alternative
splicing regulatory mechanisms, although
some mechanisms may not be conserved
in corresponding mammalian systems.
For example,
Drosophila
sex determination
genes are under extensive regulation by
alternative splicing, and this regulatory
mechanism is not conserved in mam-
malian
sex
determination.
In
general,
Drosophila
genes contain more small in-
trons than mammalian genes. Here, we
focus on mammalian alternative splic-
ing regulation.
2.2.1
Splicing Signals and Splicing
Regulatory Elements
Unlike the yeast spliceosome, mammalian
spliceosomes
have
the
daunting
task
previous page 145 Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine read online next page 147 Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine read online Home Toggle text on/off