128
Cytokines: Interleukins
Tab. 4
Major cell sources and inducers of interleukins.
Interleukin
Cell source
Inducers
IL-1
α
and
IL-1ra
Monocytes/macrophages; endothelial
cells; Fbroblasts; most cell types
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS);
phorbol esters; calcium ionophore;
muramyldipeptide; IL-1
α
/ß; TN±
α
IL-2
T cells
Mitogens, e.g. plant lectins and bacterial
enterotoxins; antigens
IL-3
T cells; mast cells; thymic epithelial cells;
keratinocytes
Mitogens and antigens (T cells) antibody
cross-linking of ±cR for IgE (mast
cells)
IL-4
T cells; mast cells; basophils; B cells;
bone marrow stromal cells
Mitogens and antigens; antibody
cross-linking of ±cR for IgE
IL-5
T cells; mast cells
Mitogens and antigens; antibody
cross-linking of ±cR for IgE
IL-6
T cells; macrophages; Fbroblasts,
hepatocytes; endothelial cells
LPS; phorbol esters; IL-1
α
/ß; TN±
α
/ß;
calcium ionophore
IL-7
Bone marrow stromal cells; fetal liver
cells
Cytokines; TG±ß, PDG± and IL-1
α
IL-8
Wide variety of cell types, including
macrophages; T cells; endothelial cells
LPS; phorbol esters; IL-1
α
/ß; TN±
α
/ß;
calcium ionophore
IL-9
T cells
Mitogens and antigens
IL-10
T cells; macrophages; B cells;
keratinocytes
Mitogens and antigens; LPS; EBV
(transformed B cells)
IL-11
Stromal Fbroblasts; trophoblasts
Cytokines; TG±ß, PDG± and IL-1
α
IL-12
Macrophages; dendritic cells
LPS; mitogens; phorbol esters
IL-13
T cells
Mitogens and antigens
IL-14
T cells
Mitogens and antigens
IL-15
Macrophages;epithelial cells
Type I interferons
IL-16
T cells; monocytes; eosinophils
?
IL-17
T cells
Mitogens and antigens
IL-18
Macrophages
LPS
IL-19
PBMC; T- and B-cell lines
LPS; GM-CS±
IL-20
Keratinocytes; skin cells
?
IL-21
T cells
Mitogens and antigens
IL-22
T cells
LPS; IL-9
IL-23
Macrophages; dendritic cells
LPS
IL-24
Th2 cells; melanoma cell lines
I±N
β
and phorbol esters
IL-25
Th2 cells; mast cells
Mitogens; antigens; IgE
IL-26
T cells
Herpesvirus transformation
IL-27
Macrophages; dendritic cells
LPS
IL-28
Dendritic cells
Virus infection; poly (I).(C)
IL-29
Dendritic cells
Virus infection; poly (I).(C)
components of the high-afFnity IL-2 re-
ceptor also belong to the HR family as
do the receptors for G-CS±, GM-CS±,
EPO,
GH,
LI±,
CNT±,
and
OSM.
In
addition,
the
two
nonspeciFc
receptor
chains that are required for IL-3, IL-5,
and GM-CS± receptor function and for
IL-6, IL-11, LI±, CNT±, and OSM recep-
tor function respectively, are HR family
members.
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