114
Cytochrome P450
oils. Efforts to produce blue roses by
modifying the P450 proFle are under way.
The flavor spearmint is produced by a plant
much less susceptible to disease than that
producing peppermint. Knocking out one
P450
gene and inserting another should
in principle generate peppermint flavor in
the spearmint plant, thereby lowering the
cost of peppermint flavorings.
Many fundamental details concerning
P450 systems at the biochemical and cell
biology levels remain to be elucidated, and
we can anticipate continued vigorous ac-
tivity in these areas. The discovery of new
forms of P450, particularly in plants and in-
sects, will proceed at a rapid pace. ±inally,
applications of P450-catalyzed chemistry
to commercial projects, including synthe-
sis of chemicals, pollution control, and
agriculture, are becoming important di-
rections of this area of investigation.
See
also
Bioorganic
Chemistry;
Bioinorganic Chemistry.
Bibliography
Books and Reviews
Johnson, E.±., Waterman, M.R. (Eds.) (1996)
Methods in Enzymology
Vol. 272.
Cytochrome
P450
(Part B). Academic Press, Orlando, ±L.
Johnson, E.±., Waterman, M.R. (Eds.) (2002)
Methods in Enzymology
, Vol. 357.
Cytochrome
P450
(Part C).
Academic
Press,
Orlando,
±L.
Nelson, D.R., Kamataki, T., Waxman, D.J., Guen-
gerich, ±.P., Estabrook, R.W., ±eyereisen, R.,
Gonzalez, ±.J.,
Coon, M.J.,
Gunsalius, I.C.,
Gotoh, O., Okuda, K., Neberg, D.W. (1993)
The P450 superfamily. Update on new se-
quences, gene mapping, accession number,
early trivial names of enzymes, and nomencla-
ture,
DNA Cell. Biol.
1
, 1–51.
Ortiz de Montellano, P. (1995)
Cytochrome P450:
Structure, mechanism and biochemistry
(2
nd
Edition). Plenum Press, New York.
Ortiz
de
Montellano, P.
(2003)
Cytochrome
P450: Structure, mechanism and biochemistry
(3
rd
Edition). Plenum Press, New York (in
preparation).
Primary Literature
Guengerich, ±.P., et al. (2002) Cytochrome P450
enzymes in the generation of commercial
products,
Nat.
Rev.
Drug.
Discov.
1
,
359–366.
Hasemann, C.A., Kurumbail, R.G., Bodupalli,
S.S.,
Peterson, J.A.,
Deisenhofer, J.
(1995)
Structure
and
function
of
cytochrome
P450: Comparative analysis of three crystal
structures,
Structure
3
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W
i
l
l
i
am
s
,P
.
A
.
,C
o
sm
e
,
J
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r
i
d
h
a
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o
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son, E.±., McRee, D.E. (2000) Mammalian mi-
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