52
Chromosome, Microdissection and Microcloning
xenobiotic enzymes, metastatic proteins,
differentiation markers, and genes that
have not been implicated in oral can-
cer. A conglomerate of such genes may
create a database that provides a veriFable
global proFle of gene expression during
carcinogenesis.
7
Summary
Chromosome
and
tissue
microdissec-
tion and microcloning technologies have
proven to be powerful tools that made
possible the isolation of new genes from
chromosomal regions in several human
genetic disorders. Three different tech-
niques to perform chromosome microdis-
section and a number of alternatives to
isolate and characterize microdissected
DNA are presented. Also, the more recent
technology of laser-capture microdissec-
tion is discussed. LCM has added to our
ability to isolate DNA, RNA, and protein
from a minute number of homogeneous
cell populations. Advances in PCR and
±ISH methods have substantiated the use
of microdissection in many applications.
Indeed, the combination of these technolo-
gies has facilitated the isolation of several
novel genes from inFnitesimal amounts of
DNAortissue,ataskthatwouldnotbepos-
sible using conventional methods. More
recently, microdissection is being coupled
with microspot technologies (DNA and
protein microchips). These combinations
will undoubtedly expedite the identiFca-
tion of disease-speciFc genes and markers
via global expression proFling.
See also
Gene Distribution in the
Human Genome; Genetics, Molec-
ular Basis of.
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