Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence, Analysis by
533
4.6
Cellular Luminescence
Cellular CL is widely used for the study
of phagocytosis. Activation of polymor-
phonuclear neutrophils by phagocytosable
particles leads to the production of reactive
oxygen species and weak chemilumines-
cence. Measurement of the weak CL is
usually accomplished after enhancement
by adding luminol or lucigenin.
4.7
Toxicity Testing
Drug toxicity and tumor chemosensitivity
can be readily assessed via the biolumines-
cent ATP assay using the Frefly luciferase
reaction. Cell death or growth inhibition
intheapp
rop
r
ia
tece
l
lpopu
la
t
iontha
tis
due to the test drug is determined from
the BL signal, which is proportional to
the number of cells. Toxic substances can
also be detected directly using lumines-
cent bacteria. Contact with toxin inhibits
light emission. When dark mutants of
theBLmarinebacteria
Photobacterium fs-
cheri
are produced by mutagenesis with
methyl methane sulfonate, for example,
they react with mutagens, and the light-
emitting properties of the bacterium are
restored. Thus, a versatile and sensitive test
for compounds with mutagenic properties
is available.
See also
±luorescence Correlation
Spectroscopy (±CS).
Bibliography
Books and Reviews
Bronstein, I., Edwards, B., Voyta, J.C. (1989) 1,2-
Dioxetanes: novel chemiluminescent enzyme
substrates. Applications in immunoassays,
J.
Biolumin. Chemilumin.
4
, 99–111.
Bronstein, I.B., ±ortin, J., Stanley, P.E., Stew-
art, G.S.A.B., Kricka, L.J. (1994) Chemilumi-
nescent and bioluminescent reporter gene
assays,
Anal. Biochem.
219
, 169–181.
Campbell, A.K. (1988)
Chemiluminescence
, Ellis
Horwood, Chichester.
DeLuca, M., McElroy, W.D. (1986)
Biolumines-
cence and Chemiluminescence
, Methods in En-
zymology, Vol. 133, Part B, Academic Press,
San Diego, CA.
±letcher, P.,
Andrew, K.N.,
Calokerinos, A.C.,
±orbes, S., Worsfold, P.J. (2001) Analytical
applications
of
flow
injection
with
chemiluminescence
detection–a
review,
Luminescence
16
, 1–23.
Kricka, L.J. (1995)
Nonisotopic Probing, Blotting
and Sequencing
, 2nd edition, Academic Press,
San Diego, CA.
Kricka, L.J.
(1991)
Chemiluminescent
and
bioluminescent techniques,
Clin. Chem.
37
,
1472–1481.
Pringle, M.J. (1993) Analytical applications of
chemiluminescence,
Adv.
Clin.
Chem.
30
,
89–183.
Stanley, P.E., Kricka, L.J. (Eds.) (2002)
Biolumi-
nescence and Chemiluminescence: Progress and
Current Applications
, World ScientiFc, Singa-
pore.
Ziegler, M.M., Baldwin, T.O. (2000)
Biolumines-
cence and Chemiluminescence
, Methods in En-
zymology, Vol. 305, Part C, Academic Press,
San Diego, CA.
Primary Literature
Akhavan-Tafti, H.,
Arghavani, Z.,
DeSilva, R.,
Schoenfelner, B.A, Schaap, A.P. (1994) Ap-
plications of Lumigen PS-1 chemilumines-
cent substrate to immunoassays, in: Camp-
bell, A.K., Kricka, L.J.P. Stanley, P.E. (Eds.)
Bi-
oluminescence and Chemiluminescence Funda-
mentals and Applied Aspects
, John Wiley & Sons,
Chichester, pp. 309–312.
Allen, R.C., Loose, L.D. (1976) Phagocytic acti-
vation of a luminol-dependent chemilumi-
nescence in rabbit alveolar and peritoneal
macrophages,
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
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Baldwin, T.O., Berends, T., Bunch, T.A., Holz-
man, T.±.,
Rausch,
S.K.,
Shamansky,
L.,
Treat, M.L., Ziegler, M.M. (1984) Cloning
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