526
Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence, Analysis by
Tab. 1
Examples of bioluminescent organisms.
Common name
Phyllum
Systematic name
Moon-night mushroom
Eumycota
Pleurotus japonicus
Fox±re
Armillaria mellea
Jack-o’-lantern
Clitocybe illudens
Sea ±r
Cnidaria
Obelia geniculata
Sea pansy
Renilla reniformis
Sea comb
Ctenophora
Mnemiopsis leidyi
Firefly squid
Mollusca
Watasenia scintillans
Fireworm
Annelida
Odontosyllis enopla
Firefly
Arthropoda
Photinus pyralis
Glow worm
Lampyris noctiluca
New Zealand glow worm
Arachnocampa luminosa
Railroad worm
Phrixothrix tiemann
Sea ±refly
Vargula hilgendorF
Brittle star
Echinodermata
Ophiopsila californica
Angler ±sh
Chordata
Melanocetus pelagicus
Flashlight ±sh
Photoblepharon palpebratus
Hatchet ±sh
Argyropelecus spp.
Lantern ±sh
Myctophum spinosum
Midshipman ±sh
Porichthys notatus
biolum/organism/photo.html for pictures of some
of the BL organisms listed in this table).
S
N
S
N
O
ATP, Mg
+ +
S
N
S
N
O
Firefly luciferase
O
2
S
N
S
N
O
O
O
O
CO-AMP
H
COOH
H
+
AMP
S
N
S
N
O
O
+
CO
2
+
Light
····
····
Fig. 2
Bioluminescent ±refly
luciferase reaction.
the photon-counting mode or the less-
sensitive photon-current mode. An alter-
native is to use a charge-coupled device
(CCD) camera to image the light emission
from two-dimensional sources. Reaction
vessels of different geometries (microtiter
plates, membranes) can be imaged and
the images stored and manipulated to
improve sensitivity via background sub-
traction techniques. Typically, a CCD de-
tector divides the image into a 512
×
512
array of elements (pixels), but improved
resolution can be achieved using sensors
that divide the image into a 1024
×
1024
pixel array. The kinetics of the CL or
BL light emission is a major consider-
ation in light measurement. Rapid light
emission (a flash of light) requires that
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