348
Cell Junctions, Structure, Function, and Regulation
region that are both removed by proteolytic
cleavage.
Cadherins have been divided into fve
Families on the
basis
oF
the
domain
structure and genomic organization oF
the cadherin proteins (Table 6). The fve
Families are (1) the classical/type I cad-
herins; (2) the atypical/type II cadherins,
the two Families oF desmosomal cad-
herins; (3) desmocollins; (4) desmogleins;
and (5) a Family containing only one mem-
ber, BS-cadherin. Sequence similarities
in the EC1 domain allow For classifca-
tion oF the diFFerent cadherins into Fam-
ilies. Type I cadherins all have the triple
amino acid sequence H-A-V in the frst
cadherin repeat (EC1). This sequence has
been termed the cell adhesion recognition
(CAR) sequence (±ig. 10), and as will be
discussed, is required For cell–cell ad-
hesion oF type I cadherins. The other
cadherin Family members also have a cen-
tral alanine in their CAR sequence, but
the surrounding residues are diFFerent For
each Family. The HAV sequence has been
Found to interact with the N-terminal tryp-
tophan (Trp2) residue also Found in the
EC-1 domain (±ig. 10). The amino acid se-
quence surrounding the Trp2 residue is
also highly conserved within the type I
cadherin Family. IF one looks at a sequence
comparison surrounding the N-terminal
Tab. 6
Major cadherin subfamilies. (Adapted from Nollet, F.,
Kools, P., van Roy, F. (2000) Phylogenetic analysis of the cadherin
superfamily allows identi±cation of six major subfamilies besides
several solitary members,
J. Mol. Biol.
299
, 551–572).
Subfamily
Protein name
Synonyms
Classical/type I
Cadherin 1
E-cadherin, uvomorulin
Cadherin 2
N-cadherin
Cadherin 3
P-cadherin
Cadherin 4
R-cadherin
Cadherin 13
T- or H-cadherin
Cadherin 15
M-cadherin
EP-cadherin
C-cadherin (
Xenopus
)
Atypical/type II
Cadherin 5
VE-cadherin
Cadherin 6
K-cadherin
Cadherin 7
Cadherin 8
Cadherin 9
T1-cadherin
Cadherin 10
T2-cadherin
Cadherin 11
OB-cadherin
Cadherin 12
Br-cadherin, N-cadherin 2
Cadherin 18
Cadherin 14
Cadherin 19
Cadherin 20
Desmocollin
Desmocollin 1
Desmocollin 2
Desmocollin 3
Desmoglein
Desmoglein 1
Desmoglein 2
Desmoglein 3
BS Cadherin
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